38. It has been recognized by the international community that it has entered a transition period away from excessive reliance on hydrocarbons as a source of energy towards a more diversified pattern of energy consumption. Excessive and wasteful consumption of energy in the industrialized countries coupled with the fact that oil was used more than any other source of energy as a result of artificially low maintained prices led to rapid depletion of oil resources as well as a relative scarcity of hydrocarbons.
39. Energy plays a crucial role in the development of the developing countries. In order to ensure an organized and orderly energy transition period as referred to above and give the required support to the development process, notwithstanding the responsibilities of developed countries for conservation, as they are consumers of more than 80 per cent of energy, it will be necessary, inter alia, to strengthen cooperation among developing countries in the field of energy.
40. Without prejudice to national interests and commitments, a comprehensive set of short, medium and long-term measures and steps have to be adopted in areas such as national energy deficits, development of new energy sources, uneven geographical distribution of exploration and resource evaluation efforts, efficient use of energy, development of appropriate technologies, processing and downstream activities, information and training, as well as the other measures related to energy referred to in this section, in compliance with the principle of full and permanent sovereignty of States over their natural resources.
Priority of Energy-supplies to Developing Countries
41. With regard to the recommendation that "Energy-exporting developing countries should take concrete measures to accord priority, without prejudice to their national interest or to their existing commitments, to the other developing countries in securing their energy supplies through direct contracts between the Government of the exporting and importing countries or their respective agencies at the official prices so as to meet their net domestic requirements" the Conference welcomed the fact that it was being carried out.
42. The Conference recommended that a meeting of concerned State agencies and enterprises to be held in Vienna in the first half of 1982 should explore the ways and means to further strengthen coordination among developing countries in energy development, supplies and rationalization of energy consumption, and promote direct Government to Government deals.
43. The Conference also recommended that the same meeting should look at the following fields with a view to explore additional areas where economic cooperation among developing countries can be achieved:
Ways and means to make fuller use of existing refining capacities in developing countries with a view to exchange output between refineries in order to meet their consumption patterns, without prejudice to national interests, commitments and overall refinery economics.
Taking into account the present capacities and product mix of refineries in the developing countries, as well as an assessment of their future refinery imbalances, in the preparation of studies to be completed within a period of one year on the possibility of utilizing excess refining capacity and the establishment of regional refineries. In carrying out these studies, particular attention must be given to the least developed countries.
Taking appropriate steps to establish linkages for distribution and consumption of energy among developing countries, so as to minimize the overall transport costs as well as avoid disruption in the supply of energy to developing countries.
44. It was recommended that energy could be exchanged, if required and to the extent possible, from one of its forms to another on a subregional, regional and interregional basis, as appropriate, in the following fields:
Electricity (energy and load charge): by means of establishment of international grids between national electricity networks in order to minimize investments and exploitation costs. Furthermore, these grids must be systematically developed in order to promote the development of large-scale power plants.
Evaluation of Energy potential in Developing Countries, Joint efforts for exploration and exploitation of additional sources of energy in the energy-importing developing countries
45. The Conference considered that there were two aspects to this problem, namely, the technical and the financial. In this regard it stressed the importance of strengthening technical and financial cooperation among developing countries and recommended that:
Technological expertise already existing in some developing countries may be made available to other developing countries on preferential terms. To this and, an inventory of available technologies should be developed without prejudice to national interest and legislation. The meeting of heads of national science and technology agencies envisaged in paragraph 26 of the chapter on technology should take up this question and agree on a course of action.
Without prejudice to national interest and legislation and on the basis of according incentives to investment, full use should be made of relevant information regarding different schemes and projects with the purpose of reducing costs and facilitating the undertaking of investments in the energy sector in he developing countries. This matter is to be taken up by the meeting of experts recommended in paragraphs 52 and 53 (b).
The possibilities of exchanging information and the existing experiences in cooperation matters for the exploration and development of new reserves of conventional energies should be studied.
Expansion of Developing Countries Capacities in Transportation, Refining Processing and other Downstream Activities
46. It was agreed that increased exchange of technical information and closer coordination among developing countries was necessary in order to enable the successful establishment and operation of joint ventures in energy-related activities.
47. The Conference recommended that these projects or joint ventures should be based on sound economic considerations and that guarantees for the investments of other developing countries also in such projects or joint ventures should be provided. It was recommended that in projects where financial resources and/or expertise were being provided for by developing countries, a preferential treatment without prejudice to national legislation, should be given to these countries in carrying out such projects. To this end, it was felt that the recommendation contained in paragraph 52 could provide a useful basis to monitor developments in this regard.
Establishment of Multinational Enterprises in Energy and Energy related Capital Equipment
48. The Conference recommended that:
An inventory be made of information of those developing countries already producing energy-related capital goods, such as drilling, production and storage equipment, pipelines and electrical equipment, as well as equipment and parts for refineries and petrochemical plants.
Multinational enterprises for capital goods for engineering, consulting and related services in the energy sector should be established. Interested countries should coordinate their efforts towards the establishment of these multinational enterprises. In order to encourage this activity, preferential treatment should be accorded to other developing countries in setting up such enterprises.
Development and Exploitation of New and Renewable Sources of Energy
49. The Conference recommended that:
A group of experts should be convened to study the problems and recommend ways and means of stimulating cooperation among developing countries in the development and exploitation of new and renewable sources of energy, and in particular in research and development, taking into account the experience acquired by the developing countries at the national and regional levels, as well as make an evaluation of the potential contribution in the short and long-term of such sources of energy to the development of the developing countries. This group of experts should also prepare a comprehensive set of recommendations in the field of training and development of personnel of developing countries in new and renewable sources of energy. This should include, inter alia, exchange of personnel, sharing of experiences, and the establishment of national centres of multinational scope for training and research; it will take fully into account the specific offers coming from some developing countries of placing at the disposal of other developing countries the technological progress related to new and renewable sources of energy which were put forward at the regional preparatory meetings of the U.N. Conference on new and renewable sources of energy, as well as the principles of cooperation contained in regional action plans set out by these meeting.
Cooperation in improving Productivity in Drilling, Reservoir Engineering, Refining Technology, for Hydrocarbons
50. The Conference recommended that the proposed meeting of concerned State agencies and enterprises referred to in paragraph 42 should agree on steps to prepare on inventory, and develop the appropriate methology, in order to facilitate and strengthen the development and cooperation, and to make full use of existing and potential capabilities of developing countries in areas such as improving productivity in drilling, reservoir engineering, refining technology and other related activities, and consider to this effect the establishment of an institutional framework.
Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
51. The Conference recommended the following:
To enhance cooperation and exchange of nuclear information among developing countries on a bilateral, regional, and multilateral basis in various aspects of nuclear energy.
That the Group of 77 should formulate the Groups position in preparation for the United Nations Conference for the Promotion of International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy for Economic and Social Development, to be convened in the first half of 1983, so as to ensure that the Conference is enabled to discuss all aspects of the development of nuclear energy of interest to the developing countries, as well as for working for the elimination of discriminatory treatment against developing countries in international cooperation in the field. The Group of 77 in New York and Vienna should continue their efforts to attain the above-mentioned objectives.
Exchange of Information and Experiences in the Energy Sector
52. The Conference recommended that developing countries should regularly exchange information on the various aspects related to energy production and utilisation in the developing countries, particularly in regard to demand and supply, technical matters, energy use, conservation, energy-related technologies. To this end, a meeting of experts on energy information systems should convene in Vienna in the second half of 1981 in order to examine this question and suggest the modalities of a practical information procedure and network on the question, taking into account existing national and regional information centres. The Group of 77 in New York was entrusted with the preparation of this meeting.
Cooperation in Manpower Training in all Fields of Energy
53. The Conference recommended that:
The facilities of existing training institutions in developing countries should be expanded and, if appropriate, new ones created in developing countries, with the cooperation of competent organisations, in order to meet the increasing training requirements of developing countries for finding and developing indigenous energy resources, particularly in relation to the skills required for negotiation and management of energy exploration and exploitation projects. In this connection, it was felt that necessary actin be taken in regard to:
A meeting of Experts be convened early in 1982, to examine TCDC in the above-mentioned areas including: training and manpower development, development of subregional, regional and interregional centres of excellence in technology; cooperation among institutions in developing countries engaged in similar activities; collective cooperation in consultancy and technical advisory services; and mutual contribution, including shared financing, to the organisation of research and development with participation in the results thereof. Arrangements for the convening of this meeting should be prepared by the Group of 77 in New York.
Action in support of Developing Countries struggle against apartheid and social discrimination
54. The Conference, notwithstanding the difficulties in fully implementing the oil embargo against South Africa because of the lack of evidence of genuine link between vessel and flag of registry, agreed to fully and effectively implement the oil embargo against South Africa and invited the Group of 77 to take appropriate steps.
55. The Conference, noting that many developing countries observe a total oil embargo against Israel as a sanction against Israeli policies and practices in the occupied Arab territories, agreed that the Group as a whole shall not undermine the efforts of these countries and invited those developing countries who have not yet imposed an oil embargo against Israel to consider ways and means of actively and effectively supporting the action of the developing countries who observe the oil embargo against Israel.