National, subregional, regional and interregional technology institutions
15. The Conference reiterated that cooperation in the field of technology among developing countries is of critical importance as it constitutes an essential factor in the promotion and development of a sound programme of action in the other fields of economic cooperation among developing countries.
16. The Conference stressed the importance of the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development, which comprises programme areas on cooperation among developing countries in this field. The Conference, in this context, instructed the Group of 77 in New York to pursue vigorously action in this regard, in view of the central role it will have to play for such implementation.
17. The Conference noted with concern, however, that, in spite of the repeated appeals of the Group of 77, negotiations for the solution of the important questions still pending in Annexes I and II of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development have not been undertaken. The Conference, felt, therefore, that the absence of a solution which would take into account the interest and needs of developing countries renders insufficient the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action. The Conference called, in this context, for the opening of those negotiations as soon as possible and instructed the Group of 77 in New York to act accordingly.
18. In order to provide information on engineering and technological capacities available and required and to develop programmes of cooperation among developing countries, the Conference recommended the following actions:
To establish and maintain an up-to-date inventory of the existing capabilities in the national, subregional, regional and interregional technology institutions and agencies in the developing countries. The Group of 77 in Vienna should formulate a detailed questionnaire to be circulated to all developing countries in which each country may indicate the available research and development facilities.
To formulate, on the basis of the information so obtained, cooperative arrangements among technological research and development institutions in specific areas. In this connection, it is proposed that specific experts groups be organized to identify problems of common interest and select projects for joint and cooperative action. This question should be dealt with by the meeting of heads of national science and technology agencies referred to in Paragraph 26.
To strengthen technological information among developing countries using existing international information system such as RITLA in Latin America, UNIDO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDP and WIPO at the international level and other such systems that may be created, for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information on the engineering and technological capabilities available in the institutions and which could be made available for other countries.
To strengthen existing, establishing where necessary, national agencies dealing with science and technology matters.
To encourage and promote initiatives on the part of developing countries for twinning arrangements between such institutions.
Flow of Technology among Developing Countries
19. In order to make available to all developing countries specific technologies and capacities acquired by some developing countries, the Conference recommended the following action:
Each developing country should compile available information on a broad range of technologies covering both hardware and software, the latter being embodied in the form of institutional knowledge, experience of pilot plant or semi-commercial plant operation, technological know-how and availability of facilities for training purposes.
A systematic compilation of information should be made available to countries and institutions that will be responsible for specific sectors, as well as to international organisations, and regional organisations, such as transfer of technology centres and interested economic commissions.
Visits of experts from governmental organisations, technical institutions in specific industrial sectors to other developing countries should be organized so as to promote and develop specific cooperation projects on bilateral and multilateral basis.
Actions necessary for promoting scientific and technical cooperation among developing countries should be identified and, in this context, appropriate reciprocal preferential treatment arrangements should be established, without prejudice to national legislation.
International organisations are requested to promote, organize and provide support for such inter-country facilities and exchange of information, including projects mutually agreed upon. Depending on the level of cooperation they could also facilitate obtaining favourable terms and conditions including granting of preferential treatment in technology transfers, without prejudice to national legislation.
Solution of specific technological problems through joint efforts and creation of networks of scientific and technological institutions
20. In order to develop joint programmes between those countries that have specific experience and expertise in specified sectors of industry and to assist others in regard to testing of raw materials, providing them with know-how and designs where necessary on products and processes and also to develop joint programmes in research and development efforts, including harmonization of policies, the Conference recommended the following action:
To establish action committees in the selected sectors to act as promoters and catalysts of technological development, convenors of meetings of interested institutions, agencies and countries and to generally serve as points of reference for technological problems in these sectors for other developing countries.
In order to facilitate the implementation of the above task the relevant international organisations should provide appropriate assistance to promote technological cooperation among developing countries.
To establish networks of scientific and technological institutions for mutual benefit and to facilitate harmonization of strategies and programmes through the exchange of information and experience in the field of scientific and technological development. This issue should be considered by the meeting of heads of national science and technology agencies envisaged in paragraph 26.
Exchange of information and experiences in the field of technology
21. In order to make available to other developing countries information and experience gathered by some through in-depth monitoring of technological problems related to absorption, adaptation and innovation of technology, the Conference recommended the following action:
To request relevant United Nations bodies and national, subregional, regional and interregional technological institutions to give priority in their work programmes to monitoring experiences in regard to absorption, adaptation and innovation and report to their governing bodies for further action.
To encourage the exchange of technical personnel in these areas, including through regional and other international organisations concerned.
To convene expert meetings to exchange experience obtained in this phase of monitoring in specific sectors, highlighting in particular the investigations made.
To encourage the use of relevant experience to enhance endogamous technical capacities of developing countries, including capabilities for the maintenance of capital equipment.
Co-operation in the areas of technological innovation and research in advanced technologies
22. With the purpose of monitoring and analysing the potentialities and implications of technological advances and breakthroughs such as genetic engineering, biotechnology and microprocessors in order to alert the developing countries to take appropriate measures and for preparing national level actions to cope with the problem of technology choice, technology use, in accordance with their basic development objectives, the Conference recommended the following action:
Continuous monitoring, assessment and analysis of the potentialities and implications of advanced technologies should be undertaken by national and regional institutions within developing countries. The relevant international organisations should also be requested to analyse and assess continuously the potentialities and implications of such technologies.
Experts from developing countries should review such potentialities and implications of advanced technologies for the benefit of developing countries and prepare the plan of action to develop required technological capacities.
Developing countries which have a certain technological capacity in these areas are requested to disseminate pertinent information and assist other developing countries in providing facilities developed by them in regard to training of skills, advisory services and pertinent information.
International organisations such as UNIDO, UNESCO, UNCTAD and UNCSTD should cooperate in promoting and developing research and development facilities and institutional mechanisms whereby the necessary technical skills could be acquired by the developing countries through securing expertise from developed countries.
Joint efforts should be made in determining well in advance the type and extent of the technological capacities that would be required in the future by developing countries.
Cooperative efforts for enhancing negotiating power of the developing countries in regard to technology suppliers
23. Bearing in mind the importance of the experiences existing in developing countries with regard to the transfer of technology and in order to strengthen the negotiating capacities in the developing countries based on the experience of other developing countries in this field and to enable them to secure just and equitable terms in the acquisition of technologies from developed countries, the Conference recommended the following action:
The strengthening of cooperation in the field of industrial property and of national regulations that govern the transfer of technology, the analysis and compilation of these regulations, the exchange of information and experience, and the establishment of cooperative relations among national, subregional and regional organisations that are competent in this field.
The collection and dissemination of information to interested governments on the terms and conditions, and consequent elaboration of model contracts for the transfer of technology from the developed countries.
Organisation of training programmes.
Compilation and analysis of laws and regulations dealing with the importation of technologies, their absorption and use in the developing countries.
Promotion of the utilisation of services of appropriate technical consultancy organisations of developing countries for evaluating and overseeing the implementation of projects in other developing countries involving technology supplies by developed countries.In addition:
Developing countries should, when appropriate, conduct joint negotiations for the purchase or transfer of specific technologies required from the industrialized countries including establishment of multinational organisations or associations for this purpose.
The Technological Information Exchange System (TIES), under the auspices of UNIDO, should be strengthened and enlarged to include other developing countries.
The existing association of national technological registries in the developing countries should be encouraged.
UNIDO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WIPO, UNCSTD, and other appropriate organisations should be requested to provide the necessary secretariat facilities, organize technical meetings of the developing countries and to facilitate the exchange of information among these countries on the basis of the experiences acquired.
A maeting of experts of interested national organisations should be convened to review the experience in dealing with the problems of the acquisition of technologies before the end of 1982.
Steps to overcome constraints to the transfer of technology among developing countries
24. In order to formulate measures to overcome constraints which hamper a greater flow of technology among the developing countries, the Conference recommended the following action:
Developing countries should prepare technology profiles for products and processes which will be of interest to other developing countries.
A bulletin containing information on technology surveys and research, technology transfer contracts and laws and available technologies should be published periodically.
Developing countries and the international organisations should be requested to provide assistance in comparing experience to identify their respective comparative advantages.
Specific steps and measures through agreements or other arrangements on the interregional, regional, subregional and bilateral levels to facilitate transfer of technology as well as promoting the increased procurement of technology from developing countries should be undertaken.
Financial investment and services needed to facilitate the speedy transfer of technology among developing countries should be enhanced.
Cooperation in research and development for new technology in energy
25. In order to organize and promote cooperation in research and development efforts in developing new technologies for energy, including alternative technologies in energy intensive applications for rapid economic development of developing countries, and promote cooperation among developing countries in the use of applications of such development in their technological infrastructure, the Conference recommended that developing countries should jointly undertake research and development efforts, organize programmes for efficient utilization of energy and exchange of technical experts.
26. In order to ensure and enhance the implementation of the relevant measures agreed above, including those referred to in 18 (b), 18 (d), 20 (a), 20 (c), 21 (c), and 23 (j), the Conference recommended that a meeting of heads of national science and technology agencies of the developing countries should be held. The heads of national science and technology agencies should direct the actions to be pursued by the Group of 77 as a result of their meeting. The Group of 77 in Vienna should prepare and convene the meeting of heads of national science and technology agencies early in 1982.